Prevalence of Substance Use Disorders by Time Since First Substance Use Among Young People in the US

JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 29, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6981

Adjusted prevalence of cannabis use disorder was higher among adolescents than among young adults within 12 months of initiation (10.7%; 95% CI, 9.3-12.3 vs. 6.4%; 95% CI, 5.2-7.9) and at more than 36 months (20.1% [95% CI, 18.0-22.3] vs. 10.9% [95% CI, 10.3-11.4]) (Table)

Discussion

Using nationally representative data, we observed higher prevalence of SUD within 12 months of cannabis and prescription misuse initiation among adolescents than among young adults (eg, cannabis use disorder: 10.7% vs 6.4% within 12 months; 20.1% vs 10.9% at more than 36 months), consistent with the association of faster transition to SUDs with younger age at drug initiation. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening for substance use among adolescents,3 the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends such screening in primary care settings only among adults.4 Our results underscore the vulnerability of adolescents to SUDs and the importance of screening for substance misuse among adolescents.

For young adults with lifetime use, prevalence within 12 months of drug initiation was high for heroin use disorder (30.9%) and methamphetamine use disorder (24.8%). Considering the high rates of opioid fatalities and rising numbers of methamphetamine deaths,5 these results highlight the urgency of prevention, screening, and treatment of SUDs in this age group.

This study has limitations. Prevalence of SUDs may have been underestimated because NSDUH excludes incarcerated individuals and homeless individuals not living in shelters and is subject to recall and social biases. Nevertheless, our results identified adolescents as highly vulnerable to SUDs, supporting the need for research to evaluate the efficacy of screening for substance use and SUDs in primary care settings and the timely treatment thereof.

Nora Volkow Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Correlates of patterns of cannabis use, abuse and dependence: evidence from two national surveys in Ireland

European Journal of Public Health, ckab007, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab007Published: 24 February 2021

Results

The weighted prevalence of experiential cannabis use was 18.3%, with 3.0% and 3.3% of participants indicating recent or current use, respectively; 41.3% of current users indicated having a CUD. Factors associated with both recent or current cannabis use included younger age, not being married or cohabiting, having no dependent children and current use of tobacco or alcohol. Male gender, younger age and lower educational levels were significantly related to CUD among current users.Conclusions

Males, adolescents/young adults and individuals with lower educational levels are more likely to be current users of cannabis and are at a greater risk of having a CUD. Health professionals should be aware of these factors to improve detection and prevention of CUD.

Cannabis Use Disorder (Addiction)

July 2020

National Institute on Drug Abuse states:

Marijuana use can lead to the development of problem use, known as a marijuana use disorder, which takes the form of addiction in severe cases. Recent data suggest that 30% of those who use marijuana may have some degree of marijuana use disorder.18 People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults.19

marijuana-lonely

Think Ya Know? Is Marijuana Addictive?

June 1, 2020

Today’s turbo-charged pot is much more addictive and addiction comes on much faster than it did in the ’70s when the THC content was just a fraction of what it is today.

Please read through the following thought-provoking facts

Association of High-Potency Cannabis Use With Mental Health and Substance Use in Adolescence

May 27, 2020

Lindsey A. Hines, PhD1Tom P. Freeman, PhD2,3,4Suzanne H. Gage, PhD5et alStanley Zammit, PhD1,6Matthew Hickman, PhD1Mary Cannon, PhD7Marcus Munafo, PhD8John MacLeod, PhD1Jon Heron, PhD1Author AffiliationsArticle InformationJAMA Psychiatry. 2020;77(10):1044-1051. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1035

Conclusions and Relevance  To our knowledge, this study provides the first general population evidence suggesting that the use of high-potency cannabis is associated with mental health and addiction. Limiting the availability of high-potency cannabis may be associated with a reduction in the number of individuals who develop cannabis use disorders, the prevention of cannabis use from escalating to a regular behavior, and a reduction in the risk of mental health disorders.

Is Recovery from Cannabis Dependence Possible? Factors that Help or Hinder Recovery in a National Sample of Canadians with a History of Cannabis Dependence

April 2020

Conclusion. Although many Canadians with a history of cannabis dependence achieve remission and a large minority are truly resilient and achieve PMH, many are failing to thrive. Targeted outreach is warranted for the most vulnerable individuals with a history of cannabis dependence (e.g., men, younger respondents, those with low social support and a history of mental illness).

In states where recreational marijuana is legal, problematic use increased among adults and teens

Date: November 13, 2019

Source: NYU Langone Health / NYU School of Medicine

Summary: Problematic use of marijuana among adolescents and adults increased after legalization of recreational marijuana use, according to a new study from NYU Grossman School of Medicine and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

Problematic use of marijuana among adolescents and adults increased after legalization of recreational marijuana use, according to a new study from NYU Grossman School of Medicine and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Published online November 13 in JAMA Psychiatry, the study is the first to look at the impact of recreational marijuana legalization on both use and cannabis use disorder (commonly referred to as problematic marijuana use) across multiple age groups. Presently, 11 states and Washington, D.C. have legalized marijuana for recreational use while 33 states and D.C. have legalized marijuana for medical use.

After examining usage following the enactment of marijuana legalization in 2012 to 2015, the researchers found that:

  • Problematic use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 was 25 percent higher (a small increase from 2.18 to 2.72 percent) compared to states without legal recreational use. There was no change in the prevalence of past-month or frequent use among teens.
  • Among adults aged 26 or older, past-month marijuana use after legalization was 26 percent higher than in non-recreational states. Past-month frequent use rose by 23 percent, and past-year problematic use increased by 37 percent.
  • Among young adults aged 18 to 25, there was no difference found in past-month, frequent or problematic marijuana us

What is the difference between a habit and an addiction?

Oct 2015

Dr. Christine Miller

A sign that a habit has morphed into an addiction is to see continued usage despite the occurrence
of life-altering negative consequences. To quote Dr. George Koob, head of the National Institute on
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism “A healthy brain rewards healthy behaviors—like exercising, eating,
or bonding with loved ones. It does this by switching on brain circuits that make you feel wonderful,
which then motivates you to repeat those behaviors……..But when you’re becoming addicted to a
substance, that normal hardwiring of helpful brain processes can begin to work against you. Drugs
or alcohol can hijack the pleasure/reward circuits in your brain and hook you into wanting more and
more. Addiction can also send your emotional danger-sensing circuits into overdrive, making you
feel anxious and stressed when you’re not using drugs or alcohol. At this stage, people often use
drugs or alcohol to keep from feeling bad rather than for their pleasurable effects.”

Marijuana youth use is INCREASING!!!!

People can have different opinions, but the statement “Every single study, in every single state, has shown teen use either unchanged or decreased once the regulated market displaces the existing unregulated cannabis market” is just wrong.

Here is one from Oregon: “New research from the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation suggests that legalization and greater retail availability of recreational marijuana are positively associated with marijuana use among adolescents.”

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200121/Legalization-and-retail-availability-in-Oregon-linked-to-higher-levels-of-adolescent-marijuana-use.aspx

Here is another one: Problematic use of marijuana among adolescents and adults increased after the legalization of recreational marijuana use, according to a new study from NYU Grossman School of Medicine and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191113153049.htm

And that JAMA peds letter was debunked. It didn’t look at the commercial sales period and didn’t compare use vs states that didn’t legalize. The trends in teen use states with commercial markets are worse than in states that didn’t legalize.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2754819

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2754817

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2754818?widget=personalizedcontent&previousarticle=2754816