Violence


Cannabis and the Violent Crime SurgeAllysia Finley

2022 Jul-Aug


How do marijuana legalization policies affect violence rates?

The researchers found that recreational marijuana legalization was associated with about a 20% increase in self-harm injuries among males under the age of 40. The increase was greater when cannabis products were available for commercial purchase through dispensaries.

https://epibiostat.ucsf.edu/news/how-do-marijuana-legalization-policies-affect-violence-rates


Association of Cannabis Use With Self-harm and Mortality Risk Among Youths With Mood Disorders

January 19, 2021

Conclusions and Relevance  Cannabis use disorder is a common comorbidity and risk marker for self-harm, all-cause mortality, and death by unintentional overdose and homicide among youths with mood disorders. These findings should be considered as states contemplate legalizing medical and recreational marijuana, both of which are associated with increased CUD.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2775255


Fact or Faction Regarding the Relationship between Cannabis Use and Violent Behavior

December 2021

Conclusions: Considering that cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug and with increasing legalization of cannabis throughout the world, it is important to understand its effects on violence and its consequences for public health and safety.1,9 The findings from this review suggest that, on the basis of the current literature, frequent cannabis use is a potential risk factor for violence and aggression, particularly in individuals who may have a unique susceptibility for engaging in violent behavior (e.g., certain individuals with SPMI). More standardized and empirical research is required. Findings from such studies will help to clarify misconceptions surrounding cannabis use and are of high relevance to clinical settings and public health and safety.

http://jaapl.org/content/early/2021/12/10/JAAPL.210034-21

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34893489/#:~:text=Results%20suggest%20that%20there%20is,illness%20versus%20the%20general%20population).


Association Between the Use of Cannabis and Physical Violence in Youths: A Meta-Analytical Investigation

27 May 2020

Conclusions:

These results demonstrate a moderate association between cannabis use and physical violence, which remained significant regardless of study design and adjustment for confounding factors (i.e., socioeconomic factors, other substance use). Cannabis use in this population is a risk factor for violence.

https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101008


A Review of Cases of Marijuana and Violence

March 2020

The main scope of this paper was to inform the general public about the relationships between marijuana and violence in the general population and in individuals with mental illnesses, as recent findings do link marijuana with cases where psychosis was present. This article is a case review and not a research study; therefore, the chief limitations regard inferences that can be made from a case study. However, the findings suggest a further need for research on marijuana and violence. The authors of this paper did not intend to take sides regarding the legalization of marijuana. The focus was public health in regards to marijuana

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084484/


Association Between the Use of Cannabis and Physical Violence in Youths: A Meta-Analytical Investigation

May 2020

Conclusions: These results demonstrate a moderate association between cannabis use and physical violence, which remained significant regardless of study design and adjustment for confounding factors (i.e., socioeconomic factors, other substance use). Cannabis use in this population is a risk factor for violence.

Published Online:27 May 2020 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101008


Association Between the Use of Cannabis and Physical Violence in Youths: A Meta-Analytical Investigation

Epub 2020 May 27.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate a moderate association between cannabis use and physical violence, which remained significant regardless of study design and adjustment for confounding factors (i.e., socioeconomic factors, other substance use). Cannabis use in this population is a risk factor for violence.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32456503/


United States Secret Service- National Threat Assessment Center -Mass Attaches in Public Spaces 2019

SUBSTANCE USE
Nearly half of the attackers (n = 17, 46%) had a history of using illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine, LSD, Ecstasy) or misusing prescription medications (e.g., Xanax, Adderall, Vyvanse). For two-fifths of the attackers (n = 15, 41%), the use of these substances and/or alcohol and marijuana may have reached the level of abuse causing negative consequences in their lives, including criminal charges, academic failures, court-ordered treatment, and eviction. One of the attackers later claimed to have no memory of his attack, alleging he had been drinking heavily at the time and had blacked out. In this sample of attackers, a significant relationship was observed between substance abuse and domestic violence.12 Ten attackers (27%) had histories of both domestic violence and substance abuse.

https://www.secretservice.gov/sites/default/files/reports/2020-09/MAPS2019.pdf


Marijuana Is More Dangerous Than You Think

Alex Berenson

Over the past 30 years, a shrewd and expensive lobbying campaign has made Americans more tolerant of marijuana. In November 2018, Michigan became the tenth state to legalize recreational cannabis use; New Jersey and others may soon follow. Already, more than 200 million Americans live in states that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use. Yet even as marijuana use has become more socially acceptable, psychiatrists and epidemiologists have reached a consensus that it presents more serious risks than most people realize.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461328/#:~:text=As%20legislation%20spreads,moc.liamg%40rohtuanosnerebxela

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Marijuana use is associated with intimate partner violence perpetration among men arrested for domestic violence

Oct 2017

In summary, findings demonstrated marijuana use positively associated with psychological, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among men arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. These findings were present even after accounting for other known risk factors for IPV perpetration. We believe continued investigation into the associations between marijuana use and IPV is important due to the public health, legal policy, and treatment implications that would result from this line of research. Continued research utilizing rigorous methodological designs, such as daily diary designs, is needed to further understand the association between marijuana and IPV perpetration. Finally, pending replication and extension, findings suggest BIPs may want to target reductions in marijuana use, which may have the concurrent benefit of reducing IPV.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663469/


Marijuana Violence and Law

January 2017

Conclusion: According to research studies, marijuana use causes aggressive behavior, causes or exacerbates psychosis and produce paranoia. These eوٴects have been illustrated through case studies of highly publicized incidents and heightened political profiles. These cases contain examples of repeated illustrations of aggression, psychosis and paranoia by marijuana users and intoxication.
Ultimately, without the use and intoxication of marijuana, the poor judgment and misperceptions displayed by these individuals would not have been present, reducing the risk for actions that result in senseless deaths.
Import to these assertions, is that the current marijuana is far more potent in THC concentrations, the psychoactive component. Accordingly, and demonstrated in direct studies, more potent marijuana results in a greater risk for paranoid thinking and psychosis. In turn, paranoid behavior increases the risk for paranoid behaviors and predictably associated with aggressive and violent behaviors.
Marijuana use causes violent behavior through increased aggressiveness, paranoia and personality changes (more suspicious, aggressive and anger). Recent illicit and “medical marijuana” (especially grown by care givers for medical marijuana) is of much high potency and more likely to cause violent behavior.
Marijuana use and its adverse effects should be considered in cases of acts of violence as its role is properly assigned to its high association. Recognize that high potency marijuana is a predictable and preventable cause of tragic violent consequences.

https://www.dalgarnoinstitute.org.au/images/resources/pdf/cannabis-conundrum/marijuana-violence-and-law-2155-6105-S11-014.pdf


The relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample.

Nov 2011

Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming.

http://europepmc.org/article/PMC/3782298